Methods of Financing University Education and Their Implications on Access, Quality and Completion Rates: An Experience Shared from Undergraduate Education Students, Maasai Mara University, Kenya

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

  •   Florence O. Mobegi

  •   Augustine M. Kara

Abstract

Demand for higher education in Kenya has increased despite insufficient funding from the Government. This led to the cost-sharing policy where both the Government, the students, and their households share the costs of higher education. Students are provided with loans through Higher Education Loans Board (HELB). Public universities are supported through capitation grants to meet development and recurrent expenditure. The household contributes towards tuition and upkeep of their students. At Maasai Mara University, it has been observed that at the end of every semester, some students defer their examinations due to fee balances implying that there are gaps in the existing methods of financing a university education. This study, therefore, investigated the effectiveness of the financing methods and their implications on students’ access, completion rates, and quality education based on students’ experiences at the University. The study used a descriptive survey design. The target population was 950 education students who were in their third and fourth years of study. Stratified random sampling was used to select 315 students to participate in the study. Data were collected through questionnaires and interview guides for the class representatives. Documents were also analyzed. The study found that the majority of the students depended on HELB and support from their households to finance their education. The amount of loans allocated to students was inadequate and multiple sources of funding are required to meet the full costs of education. Students from poor backgrounds resorted to menial jobs which affected class attendance and learning outcomes. Other students deferred their examinations affecting academic progression. The study concluded that the current methods of funding university education were not dependable as they negatively affected students’ access, academic progression, completion rates, and quality of learning outcomes. The study recommended the need for an alternative financial support system for students from poor families to complete their studies on schedule.


Keywords: Academic Progression, Access, Finance, Higher Education, Quality.

References

Achieng, K. & Jagongo, A. (2019). Loan Characteristics and Loan Performance at Higher Education Loans Board in Kenya. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 10(12), 54 – 64.

Aina, C., Baici, E., Casalone, G. & Pastore, F. (2018). (Online) Available: The Economics of University Dropouts and Delayed Graduation: A Survey. https://ftp.iza.org/dp11421.pdf. (February 14, 2022).

Arendt, I. N. (2009). The effect of public financial aid on dropout from and completion of university education: evidence from a student grant reform. DOI 10.1007/s00181-012-0638-5

Bomer, A., Liu, X., Irungu, W. & Wanjiru, W. (2021). How is Academic Performance Affected by Delay in Student Loan Disbursement in Kenyan Universities? A Case Study of Kenyatta University. Higher Education Studies, 11(2), 121 – 135.

Boy, J. S. (2018). An Assessment of Higher Education Loans Board in Financing University Education in Kenya; A Case of Moi University. (Online) Available: http://ir.mu.ac.ke:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/2386

Ebenuwa-Okoh E. E. (2010). Influence of Age and Gender on Academic Performance among Undergraduates. B.Sc. Project, Department of Counselling Psychology, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.

Eldin, E. M. (2014). The Impact of Cost-Sharing on Quality of Education in Egypt Public Universities. (Online) Available: https://archives.kdischool.ac.kr/bitstream/11125/30550/1/The%20Impact%20of%20cost-sharing%20on%20quality%20of%20education%20in%20Egypt%20public%20universities.pdf (September 10, 2021).

Garwe, E. & Maganga, E. (2015). The Effect of Student Financial Constraints on University Non-Completion Rates. International Journal of Education, 7(2), 322 – 336.

Gayardon, A. & Brajkovic, L. (2019). Student Finance Policies Worldwide: Leveraging funding for attainment and equity in higher education. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.

Gayardon, A. & Brajkovic, L. (2019). Student Finance Policies Worldwide: Leveraging funding for attainment and equity in higher education. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.

Gichuhi, L. (2015). Alternative Methods of Financing Higher Education in Kenya. International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology, 57-67.

Goksu, A. & Gungor, G. (2015). A Comparative Analysis of Higher Education Financing in Different Countries. Procedia Economics and Finance, 26, 1152 – 1158.

Herbst, M. (2007). Financing Public Universities: The Case of Performance Funding. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

Hosein, R. & Franklin, M. (2010). Funding Tertiary Level Education in T&T: An Assessment of the Merits of a Graduate Tax. In Renwick, S. & Quamina-Aiyejina, L (Eds). Sustainable Funding of Higher Education in Challenging Times. Papers Presented at a Professional Development Seminar Organized by the West Indies Group of University Teachers (WIGUT), St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago, 4 March 2010.

Joaquim, J. A. & Cerdeira, L. (2020). Financial Accessibility in Cost-Sharing Policies in Higher Education in Mozambique. International Journal of Research, 8(9), 71-86.

Johnstone, B. (2004). The Economics and Politics of Cost Sharing in Higher Education: Comparative Perspectives. Economics of Education Review, 23, 403–410.

Johnstone, D. & Marcucci, P. (2007). Worldwide Trends in Higher Education Finance: Cost-Sharing, Student Loans, and the Support of Academic Research. (Online) Available: https://www.kiva.org/cms/worldwide_trends_in_higher_education_finance.pdf. (November 15, 2021).

Kerlinger, F. N. (1986). Foundations of Behavioural Research. New York: Subject Publications.

Lukkarinena, A., Koivukangasa, P. & Seppäläa, T. (2016). Relationship between class attendance and student performance. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 228, 341 – 347.

Mabuza, N. H. (2020) Dropout Causes of Students Funded by The National Student Financial Aid Scheme in South African Universities. Online (Available). https://uir.unisa.ac.za/handle/10500/26730. (February 17, 2022).

McMahon, W. W. (2018). The total return to higher education: Is there underinvestment for economic growth and development? https://doi.org/10.1016/j.qref.2018.05.005

Melissa, J. (2017). Government-Sponsored Bursaries: Examining Financial Support for Residents to Study at Home. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 47 (1), 49 – 60.

ml (January 15, 2022).

Modena, F., Rettore, E. & Tanzi, G. (2020). The Effect of Grants on University Drop- Out Rates: Evidence on the Italian Case. (Online) Available: https://docs.iza.org/dp12886.pdf. (February 17, 2022).

Mukhwana, E. J., Too, J., Kande, A. & Nandokha, H. (2020). Financing higher education in Africa: The case of Kenya. African Journal of Rural Development, 5 (3), 53 – 64.

Noh, N., Yusoff, S., Hassanuddin, N. A. & Sukri, N. (2018). Class attendance and its impact on students’ performance. International Academic Conference (IAC IV).

Nyahende, V. R. (2013). The Success of Students’ Loans in Financing Higher Education in Tanzania. Higher Education Studies, 3(3), 47 – 61.

Pfeffermann, G. (2015). Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Why the Neglect? http://mercatorxxi.com/merc/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Higher-education-in-sub-saharan-Africa.pdf (April, 2022).

Psacharopoulos, G. & Patrinos, A. (2018). Returns to Investment in Education: A Decennial Review of the Global Literature. Washington D.C: World Bank.

Salmi, J. (2017). The Tertiary Education Imperative: Knowledge, Skills and Values for Development. Boston and Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

Salmi, J. (2020). Higher Education and Inclusion. (Online) Available: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000373689 (February 9, 2022).

Samer, A., Maulshree, G. & Priyal, G. (2020). The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Education Financing. Economic Impact of COVID-19. World Bank, Washington, DC: World Bank.

UNESCO (2017). Six ways to ensure higher education leaves no one behind. (Online) Available: https://en.unesco.org/gem-report/six-ways-ensure-higher-education-leaves-no-one-behind (February 9, 2022).

Wilayat (2009) Causes of examination malpractice/unfair means. (Online) Available: http://research.education.edu.blogspot.com/2009/07/examination.malpractice.ht

World Bank (2020). The Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic On Education Financing.

Zatonatska, T., H., Rozhko, O., Lyutyy, I., Tkachenko, N. V. & Anisimova, O. Y. (2019). Global Practices of Higher Education Financing: Approaches and Models. Khazar Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 22 (4), 95-112.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
Mobegi, F. O., & Kara, A. M. (2022). Methods of Financing University Education and Their Implications on Access, Quality and Completion Rates: An Experience Shared from Undergraduate Education Students, Maasai Mara University, Kenya. European Journal of Education and Pedagogy, 3(3), 280–287. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejedu.2022.3.3.325