Implementation of Blended Learning in Higher Learning Institutions in Zambia: A Case of Kwame Nkrumah University


  •   Oliver Magasu

  •   Jive Lubbungu

  •   Lucy Kamboni

  •   Exsaviour Sakala

  •   Beatrice Kapanda


The study sought to establish the implementation of blended learning in Zambia, particularly, at Kwame Nkrumah University. This study employed a qualitative approach to generate data because it targeted for an in-depth indulgence into the issues under study on the implementation of blended learning at Kwame Nkrumah University. A descriptive research design was used. The target population were all students at Kwame Nkrumah University. The sample size was 36 participants. Inductive thematic analysis was used to analyse data because themes were strongly linked to data. The key findings were that participants understood the concept of blended learning as a combination of face to face interaction and online teaching. Some lecturers and students in some faculties were not willing to implement blended learning. The challenges were that because of big numbers of over 200 students in one class, it was not safe and possible to stick to the five golden rules of Covid-19. Some students were not able to access online services because of non-payment of the 50% threshold on tuition fees to access the services. Other challenges were that there was poor internet connectivity at the university, the e-learning tool (MOODLE) was limiting, the university did not have sufficient infrastructure to support blended learning and the Visually Impaired (VI) students were not able to access e-learning services. Based on the findings, the study recommends that the university invests heavily in ICT and infrastructure if blended learning was to be a success. Furthermore, the study recommends that students be oriented on e-learning tools. There is need in future to investigate how the Information Communication Technology (ICT) section at Kwame Nkrumah University was ready to implement blended learning.

Keywords: Blended learning, Implementation, Information Communication Technology (ICT), Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment (MOODLE)


Association for the Development of Education in Africa (2020). Delivering education at home in African Member States amid the Covid-19 pandemic: Country status Report. Abidjan: ADEA Initiative.

Bowyer, J. & Chambers Lucy (2017). Evaluating Blended Learning: Brining the Elements Together. Research Matters: Cambridge Assessment Publication. UCLES 2017; Issue 23, SPRING 2017, 17–26.

Dhawan, S. (2020). Online Learning: A Panacea in the times of COVID-19 Crisis. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 49 (1), 5–12.

Friesen, M. (2012). Report: Defining Blended Learning. http//blogs.ubc.canfriesen/2012/09/01/where-does-blended-end-virtual-begin/ (Accessed15.03.2022).

Garrison, D. R., & Kanuka, H. (2004). Blended Learning: Uncovering its Transformative Potential in Higher Education. The Internet and Higher Education, 7(2), 95–105.

Grahman, C. R. (2006). Blended Learning Systems: Definition, Current Trends, and Future Directions. The Handbook of Blended Learning: Global Perspectives, Local Designs. Sanfrancisco, Pfeiffer Publi., 2006, pp. 3–21.

Khan, A. Irshad, Qayyum-Noor-ul, Shaik, M. Sharief, Ali, M. Abdullah & Bebi, V. Ch. (2012). Study of Blended Learning Process in Education Context. I. J. Modern Education and Computer Science, September, 2021, pp. 23–29.

Lalima & Dangwal, K., Lata (2017). Blended Learning: An Innovative Approach. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 5(1), 129–136.

Magasu, O., Mileji, P., & Lubbungu, J. (2020). E-Learning in the ‘New Normal’ on Students at Kwame Nkrumah University in Zambia. Inclusive or Exclusive. International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation, 8 (2), 208–214.

Magasu, O., Mutale, P., Gondwe, C., Mubita, S. & Kombe, C. (2021). Secondary School Teachers’ Preparedness in Implementing the Revised Curriculum Framework of 2013 in Zambia: A Pedagogical Perspective. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science, 5(4), 282–289.

Mukuka, A., Shumba, O., & Mulenga, H. M. (2021). Students’ Experiences with Remote Learning during the COVID-19 School Closure: Implications for Mathematics Education. Heliyon, 7(2021), e07523.

Naidoo, J. & Singh-Pillay, A. (2020). Teachers’ Perceptions of Using the Blended Learning Approach for Stem-Related Subjects within Fourth Industrial Revolution. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 19(4), 583–593.

Procter, C. T. (2016). Blended Learning in Practice. Available at (Accessed 17.03.2016).

Rao, V., Chandra, Sekhar (2019). Blended Learning: A New Hybrid Teaching Methodology. Journal for Research Scholars and Professionals of English Language Teaching, 3(13), 1–5.

Sarfraz, F., Daka, H., Zubair, A. & Sarfraz, F. (2022). The Viability of Blended Model in Undergraduate Medical Education in COVID-19 Pandemic. Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 16(1), 561–565.

Volchennkova, K. (2016). Blended Learning: Definition, Models and Implications for Higher Education. Bulletin of the south Ural State University. Ser. Education. Educational Sciences, 8(2), 24–30.

Wahyudin, D. (2020). The Readiness of Management Faculty Members in Implementing New Curriculum in Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. Applied Science and Innovation, 4(2), 27–4.


How to Cite
Magasu, O., Lubbungu, J., Kamboni, L., Sakala, E., & Kapanda, B. (2022). Implementation of Blended Learning in Higher Learning Institutions in Zambia: A Case of Kwame Nkrumah University. European Journal of Education and Pedagogy, 3(3), 214–218.