A Theoretical Essay about Inclusion and the Role of Teachers in Building an Inclusive Education

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

  •   Marco Ferreira

Abstract

This article is a theoretical essay that revisits the concept of inclusive education and places teachers at the heart of the educational commitment of all schools, which means, quality education for all students. The teacher's knowledge, attitudes and values influence the building of a learning environment that facilitates a focus on the needs of each student, placing the student in the middle of the edification of an inclusive school. In this article, we will, on one hand, value the need for the teacher to move towards the development of differentiated pedagogical practices in the classroom, where pedagogical differentiation, as a principle of positive discrimination, is a way of guaranteeing equal opportunities in accessing teaching and learning. On the other hand, we will also consider reflective practice as a privileged resource for the teacher to develop new skills and knowledge. Teachers who reflect on their practices tend to adopt professional attitudes that lead to self-critique, commitment, responsibility, and autonomy. Being a reflective teacher is a pathway to the birth of a different teacher; a teacher capable of improving teaching competencies by creating learning opportunities that will facilitate the implementation of different methodological approaches.




 


 


Keywords: Inclusive Education, Pedagogical Differentiation, Reflective Teacher

References

Ainscow, M. (2016). Diversity and Equity: A Global Education Challenge. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 51, 143–155. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40841-016-0056-x

Arnesen, A., Allen, J. & Simonsen, E. (2009). Policies and Practices for teaching socio-cultural diversity. Concepts, principles and challenges in teacher education. Strasbourg, Council of Europe.

Bailleul, P., Bataille, A., Langlois, C., Lanoe, P. & Mazereau, P. (2008). De l’intégration à la scolarisation des élèves handicapés : état des lieux et nouveaux besoins de formation des enseignants: Éclairages sur la situation européenne. Centre d’études et de recherche en sciences de l’éducation (CERSE) Université de Caen Basse-Normandie. http://www.unicaen.fr/recherche/mrsh/files/Rapport.SEH_.pdf.

Ballard, K. (2003) The analysis of context: Some thoughts on teacher education, culture, colonization and inequality. In Booth T., Nes K., and Stromstad M. (eds.) Developing inclusive teacher education, London: Routledge/Falmer.

Bender, W. N. (2008). Differentiated Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities. Thousand Oaks CA. Corwin Press.

Bengtsson, J. (1995) What is Reflection? On reflection in the teaching profession and teacher education. Teachers and Teaching, 1(1), 23-32. https://doi.org/10.1080/1354060950010103

Blaz, D. (2008). Differentiated Assessment for Middle and High School Classrooms. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education, Inc.

Capucha, M. (2010). Inclusão ou Ilusão? Intervenção com uma criança com autismo no âmbito da componente de apoio à família [Dissertação de Mestrado]. Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias.

Carpenter, B., Ashdown, R. & Bovair, K. (Eds.) (2017). Enabling access: Effective teaching and learning for pupils with learning difficulties (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.

Correia, L. (2003). O sistema educativo português e as necessidades educativas especiais ou quando inclusão quer dizer exclusão. In L. M. Correia (Orgs.), Educação especial e inclusão: quem disser que uma sobrevive sem a outra não está no seu perfeito juízo (n. º 13, pp. 11-41). (Coleção Educação Especial). Porto: Porto Editora.

Cook, B. G., Cameron, D. L., & Tankersley, M. T. (2007). Inclusive teachers’ attitudinal ratings of their students with disabilities. Journal of Special Education, 40(4), 230–238.

Cross, A., Traub E., Hutter-Pishgahi L., & Shelton G. (2004). Elements of Successful Inclusion for Children with Significant Disabilities. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 24(3):169-183. https://doi.org/10.1177/02711214040240030401

Dewey, J. (1933). How we think: A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process. New York: D.C. Heath and Company.

Dewey, J. (1944). Democracy and education. New York: The Free Press.

Durksen, T, & Klassen, R. (2012). Professional Relationships Influence Preservice Teacher Success. ASCD Express, 7, 10.

Ferreira, M., (2017). Guia para uma pedagogia diferenciada em contexto de sala de aula – Teoria, práticas e desafios. Coleção de Guias Educacionais. Lisboa: Coisas de Ler.

Ferreira, M., Gonçalves, C., Silva, C., & Olcina-Sempere, G. (2020). Inclusión y diferenciación pedagógica: dos estudios cualitativos en el sistema educativo portugués. Revista Colombiana de Educación, 78, 321-342. https://doi.org/10.17227/rce.num78-9922

Ferreira, M.M., Prado, S. A., & Cadavieco, J. F. (2015a). La Educación Inclusiva en Portugal y España: naturaleza y fundamentos, Magister, Facultad de Formación del Profesorado y Educación de la Universidad de Oviedo, Elsevier España, 27, 44-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.magis.2015.05.003

Ferreira, M.M., Prado, S. A., & Cadavieco, J. F. (2015b). Educação inclusiva: o professor como epicentro do processo de inclusão. Revista nacional e internacional de educación inclusiva, 1, 1-13.

Florian, L., Black-Hawkins, K., & Rouse, M. (2017). Achievement and inclusion in schools (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.

Florian, L. & Rouse, M. (2009) The inclusive practice project in Scotland: Teacher education for inclusive education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25 (4), 594-601. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2009.02.003

Forlin, C., & Chambers, D. (2011). Teacher preparation for inclusive education: Increasing knowledge but raising concerns. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 39(1), 17–32.

Fullan, M. (2007). The new meaning of educational change (4th ed.). New York: Teachers College Press.

Humphrey, N. y Lewis, S. (2008). What does, inclusion‟ mean for pupils on the autistic spectrum in mainstream secondary schools? Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 8(3), 132-140. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-3802.2008.00115.x

Kingore, B. (2005). Differentiating Instruction: Rethinking Traditional Practices. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Lalanda, M. C., & Abrantes, M. M. (1996). O conceito de reflexão em J. Dewey. In: Alarcão, I. (org.). Formação reflexiva de professores. Estratégias de supervisão. Porto, Portugal: Porto Editora.

Lauermann, F. & König, J. (2016). Teachers’ professional competence and wellbeing: Understanding the links between general pedagogical knowledge, self-efficacy and burnout. Learning and Instruction, 45, 9-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2016.06.006

Lawrence-Brown, D. (2004). Differentiated instruction. American Secondary Education, 32(3), 34-62.

Lenz, B. K., Deshler, D. D., & Kissam, B. R. (2004). Teaching content to all: Evidence-based inclusive practices in middle and secondary schools. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

Marin, E. (2014). Are today’s general education teachers prepared to face inclusion in the classroom? Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 142, 702-707.

Moon, J. (2004). A handbook of reflective and experiential learning – Theory and practice. New York: Routledge Falmer.

Morgado, J. (2003). Os desafios da educação inclusiva: fazer as coisas certas ou fazer certas as coisas. In L. M. Correia (Orgs.), Educação especial e inclusão: quem disser que uma sobrevive sem a outra não está no seu perfeito juízo. (Coleção Educação Especial). Porto: Porto Editora.

OECD (2018). Education Policy Outlook 2018: Putting Student Learning at the Centre, OECD Publishing, Paris. https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264301528

Pollard, E. L., & Lee, P. D. (2003). Child Well-being: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Social Indicators Research, 61(1), 59-78. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021284215801

Rodrigues, D., & Lima-Rodrigues, L. (2011). Formação de professores e inclusão: Como se reformam os reformadores? In D. Rodrigues (org.), Educação inclusiva: Dos conceitos às práticas. Lisboa: Instituto Piaget.

Sailor, W. (2015). Advances in schoolwide inclusive school reform. Remedial and Special Education, 36(2), 94–99. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741932514555021

Sanches, I., & Teodoro, A. (2006). Da integração à inclusão escolar: cruzando perspetivas e conceitos. Revista Lusófona de Educação, 8, 63-83.

Savolainen, H. (2009). Responding to diversity and striving for excellence: The case for Finland. In Acedo C. (ed.) Prospects Quarterly Review of Comparative Education, 39 (3), 281-292. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11125-009-9125-y

Schleicher, A. (2018), Valuing our Teachers and Raising their Status: How Communities Can Help. International Summit on the Teaching Profession, OECD Publishing, Paris. https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264292697

Schon, D. (1983). The reflective practitioner: how professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books.

Schon, D. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner: toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Schon, D. (1991). The reflective practitioner: how professionals think and act. Oxford Avebury.

Schuelka, M. J. (2017). Learning at the top of the world: Education policy construction and meaning in Bhutan. In T.D. Jules & P. Ressler (Eds.), Re-reading educational policy and practice in small and microstates (pp. 217–236). Bern: Peter Lang.

Shank, M. (2005). Common Space, Common Time, Common Work. Supporting New Educators, 62, 8, 16–19.

Silva, M. (2009). Da exclusão à inclusão: conceções e práticas. Revista Lusófona de Educação, 13, 135-153.

Slee, R. (2010). Political economy, inclusive education and teacher education. In Forlin, C. (ed.) (2010) Teacher Education for Inclusion. Changing Paradigms and Innovative Approaches. London: Routledge.

Smith, R. and Leonard, P. (2005) Collaboration for Inclusion: Practitioner Perspectives. Equity and Excellence in Education, 38, 269-279.

Strickland, C. A. (2009). Professional Development for Differentiating Instruction. Alexandria VA: ASCD Publications.

Theoharis, G.& Causton-Theoharis, J. (2010 ). Include. Belong. Learn. Educational Leadership, 68(2).

UNESCO (1994). Declaração de Salamanca e Enquadramento da Acção na Área das Necessidades Educativas Especiais. Lisboa: Instituto de Inovação Educacional.

Verdugo, M. A., Navas, P., Gómez, L. E., & Schalock, R. L. (2012). The concept of quality of life and its role in enhancing human rights in the field of intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 56 (II), 1036-1045. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2012.01585.x

Villa, R.A. & Thousand, J.S. (2016). Leading an inclusive school: Access and success for ALL students. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Watkins, A. (ed.) (2007) Assessment in Inclusive Settings: Key issues for policy and practice. Odense: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education.

Webb, R., Vulliamy, G., Sarja, A., Hämäläinen, S., Poikonen, P. (2009). Professional learning communities and teacher well‐being? A comparative analysis of primary schools in England and Finland. Oxford Review of Education, 35, 3, 405–422. https://doi.org/10.1080/03054980902935008

Zeichner, K. (2003). Teacher research as professional development for P-12 educators in the U.S. Educational Action Research, 11(2), 301-326. https://doi.org/10.1080/09650790300200211

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
Ferreira, M. (2022). A Theoretical Essay about Inclusion and the Role of Teachers in Building an Inclusive Education. European Journal of Education and Pedagogy, 3(3), 97–104. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejedu.2022.3.3.353