Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs): Practices, Trends, and Challenges for the Higher Education


The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight to the term Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs), the practices, trends and challenges for the higher education institutions. MOOCs, although having a short history, literally took off in 2012 when MIT and Harvard created “edX”, former Stanford professors created “Coursera”, a private company created “Udacity” and UK’s Open University created “Future Learn”. Nowadays, the majority of academic institutions in US and Europe are offering MOOCs to their students, providing a wide variety of online courses in difference subjects with the option, if wanted, to obtain a course certificate.

The arrival of MOOCs has greatly affected higher education worldwide, since learners have greater access and more options for their education, they are forcing higher education institutions to reevaluate their educational approaches and to comply with the current educational trends. There are many reasons why students decide to participate in a MOOC.  Naming a few, to obtain a degree, to get a new job, to get promotion, to get a post retirement job, to be admitted in a college, to use it as corporate training. For this reason, both state and private universities begin to reexamine their educational strategy and methods, in a local and international level. The question that arises regards whether MOOCs can be considered to be the future in education, or it will be proved that this increasing interest is nothing more than a bubble what will bust in the foreseeable future.

  1. Aguaded-Gómez, J. I. (2013). The MOOC revolution: A new form of education from the technological paradigm? Grupo Comunicar.  |   Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, T. (2003). Getting the mix right again: An updated and theoretical rationale for interaction. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.  |   Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, T. (Ed.). (2011). The theory and practice of online learning. Athabasca University Press.  |   Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, T., & Dron, J. (2010). Three generations of distance education pedagogy. The International Review Of Research In Open And Distance Learning, 12(3), 80- 97. Retrieved from  |   Google Scholar
  5. Antontelou, G., Skoulikari, A. & Kameas, A. (2012). The contribution of ICT to the sustainability of knowledge and in the adoption of a new lifestyle in modern times, International Conference New Technologies, Education for Sustainable Development and Critical Pedagogy, 328-345.  |   Google Scholar
  6. Audsley, S., Fernando, K., Maxson, B., Robinson, B., & Varney, K. (2013). An examination of coursera as an information environment: Does coursera fulfill its mission to provide open education to all?. Serials Librarian, 65(2), 136-166.  |   Google Scholar
  7. Baggaley, J. (2013). MOOC rampant. Distance Education, 34(3), 368-378.  |   Google Scholar
  8. Billsberry, J. (2013). MOOCs: Fad or revolution? Journal of Management Education, 37(6), 739-746.  |   Google Scholar
  9. Bissell, A. (2009). Permission granted: Open licensing for educational resources. Open Learning, The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 24, 97-106.  |   Google Scholar
  10. Bodea, C.N., Dascalu, M.I., Lytras, M.D. (2012). A recommender engine for advanced personalized feedback in e-Learning environments. The International journal of engineering education, 28 (6), 1326-1333.  |   Google Scholar
  11. Bull, D. (2012). From ripple to tsunami: The possible impact of MOOCs on higher education. DE Quarterly, 2012 Spring, 10-11.  |   Google Scholar
  12. Chamberlin, L., & Parish, T. (2011). MOOCs: Massive open online courses or massive and often obtuse courses? eLearn Magazine, August 2011. Retrieved from  |   Google Scholar
  13. Cooper, S., & Sahami, M. (2013). Reflections on stanford's MOOCs. Communications of the ACM, 56(2), 28-30.  |   Google Scholar
  14. Cusumano, M. A. (2013). Are the costs of 'free' too high in online education? Communications of the ACM, 56(4), 26-29.  |   Google Scholar
  15. Daniel, J. (2012). Making sense of MOOCs: Musings in a maze of myth, paradox and possibility. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 3. Retrieved from  |   Google Scholar
  16. Esichaikul, V., Lamnoi, S. & Bechter, C., (2011). Student Modelling in Adaptive E-learning Systems, Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An international Journal, Vol.3, No3., 342-355.  |   Google Scholar
  17. Felder R. M., Silverman L.K. (1998), Learning and teaching styles in engineering education, Engineering Education, 78(7), 674-681.  |   Google Scholar
  18. Fraser, S., & Deane, E. (1997). Why open learning? Australien Universities Review, 1.  |   Google Scholar
  19. Hylén, J. (2006). Open educational resources: Opportunities and challenges. Proceedings of Open Education, 49-63.  |   Google Scholar
  20. Hylén, J., & Schuller, T. (2007). Giving knowledge for free. OECD Observer, 263, 21- 22  |   Google Scholar
  21. Limongelli, C., Sciarrone, F., Temperini M., & Vaste, G. (2009) Adaptive learning with the LS-Plan system: a field evaluation, IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 2(3), 203-215.  |   Google Scholar
  22. Limongelli, C., Sciarrone, F. & Vaste, G. (2011). Personalized e-learning in Moodle: the Moodle_LS System, Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 49-58.  |   Google Scholar
  23. Liyanagunawardena, T., Adams, A. & Williams, S. (2013) MOOCs: A systematic study of the published literature 2008-2012. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, vol. 14, no. 3.  |   Google Scholar
  24. Nyberg, D. (Ed.). (1975). The philosophy of open education Londoneducation London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.  |   Google Scholar
  25. Pagiatakis, G., Voudoukis, N. (2022) Load Lines of Transistor Circuits: A Unifying Educational Approach Using Blended Learning and Flipped Classroom. European Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. 6, 2 (Apr. 2022), 73–80.  |   Google Scholar
  26. Pange, A. & Lekka, Y., (2012). Reusability and Personalization of e-learning: A pilot study of e-learning programs offered by Greek Universities, ICICTE 2012 Proceedings, 241-247.  |   Google Scholar
  27. Sabine, G., Beate, L. (2005). An Evaluation of Open Source E-Learning Platforms Stressing Adaptation Issues. Proceedings of the International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2005.  |   Google Scholar
  28. Sandeen, C. (2013). Integrating MOOCS into traditional higher education: The emerging “MOOC 3.0” era. Change, 45(6), 34-39.  |   Google Scholar
  29. Schrire, S., & Levy, D. (2012). Troubleshooting MOOCs: The case of a massive open online course at a college of education. in World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications, 2012(1), 761-766.  |   Google Scholar
  30. Skiba, D. J. (2013). On the horizon: The year of the MOOCs. Nursing Education Perspectives, 34(2), 136-137.  |   Google Scholar
  31. Surjono, H. (2014). The Evaluation of a Moodle Based Adaptive e-Learning System. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 89-92.  |   Google Scholar
  32. Tsolis, D. , Kampana, S., Paraskevi, C. and Tsakalidis, A. (2011).An Adaptive & Personalized Mobile e-Learning Platform, IADIS Conference on Mobile Learning, Spain 2011  |   Google Scholar
  33. Tuomi, I. (2006), “Open Educational Resources: What they are and why do they Matter”, Available at:  |   Google Scholar
  34. Vagale, V. (2012). Personalization Opportunities in the Moodle System, 53rd International Scientific conference of Daugavpils University.  |   Google Scholar
  35. Vardi, M. Y. (2012). Will MOOCs destroy academia? Communications of the ACM, 55(11), 5-5.  |   Google Scholar
  36. Voudoukis, N. (2018). Design, Description, Implementation and Assessment of a Multimedia Application with Simulations for Teaching Models of Light. EJERS, European Journal of Engineering Research and Science, July 2018  |   Google Scholar
  37. Yassin, S. M. (2013). Massive online open course (mooc): A new hero on the block. Journal of Development Communication, 24(1), 70-75.  |   Google Scholar
  38. Yuan, L., & Powell, S. (2013). MOOCs and Open Education: Implications for Higher Education. Glasgow: JISC CETIS.  |   Google Scholar
  39. Yuan, L., Powell, S., & CETIS, J. (2013). MOOCs and Open Education: Implications for Higher Education. Retrieved March, 21, 2013.  |   Google Scholar
  40. Zutshi, S., O'Hare, S., & Rodafinos, A. (2013). Experiences in MOOCs: The perspective of students. American Journal of Distance Education, 27(4), 218-227.  |   Google Scholar

How to Cite

Voudoukis, N., & Pagiatakis, G. (2022). Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs): Practices, Trends, and Challenges for the Higher Education. European Journal of Education and Pedagogy, 3(3), 288–295.

Search Panel

 Nikolaos Voudoukis
 Google Scholar |   EJEDU Journal

 Gerasimos Pagiatakis
 Google Scholar |   EJEDU Journal