Challenges and Opportunities of Online Assessment Implementation During Covid-19 Pandemic in Indonesia Based on Recent Studies


  •   Made Sri Diarsini

  •   Luh Putu Artini

  •   Ni Nyoman Padmadewi

  •   Ni Made Ratminingsih

  •   I Gusti Ayu Lokita Purnamika Utami

  •   Ni Putu Era Marsakawati


Online learning has become a new trend in Indonesian educational practices due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Since the teaching and learning process changes from face-to-face to online, conducting online assessments has become a requirement. The shift brings some challenges and opportunities. This study attempts to describe the challenges and opportunities of implementing online assessment during the Covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia. A library research method was implied by analyzing related research articles conducted between 2020-2022. The research procedures adapt George’s (2008) library research model. The findings reveal three challenges related to internet connectivity and the consequence of indirect interactions between the students and instructors. The first challenge is that online assessment is costly. Both teachers and students are required to pay the costs of internet access, own a digital device, and possess digital literacy. The second challenge is the possible problem of cheating and plagiarism. The next challenge is difficulty to follow students’ progress, interact effectively with them, and handle-less motivated and discouraged students. However, there are some opportunities as far as online assessment is concerned. There is more flexibility with time and space, direct and immediate feedback to students, strategies to deal with students’ anxiety, encouraging autonomous learning, increasing knowledge and experiences in online language assessment, and time management skill.

Keywords: challenges, Covid-19, online assessment, opportunities.


Adedoyin, O. B., & Soykan, E. (2020). Covid-19 pandemic and online learning: The challenges and opportunities. Interactive Learning Environments, 0(0), 1–13.

Ali, M. K., & Maksum, H. (2020). Utilization of e-learning-based ICT learning using the Google Classroom application during the Covid-19 pandemic. Journal of Education Research and Evaluation, 4(4), 373–380.

Alruwais, N., Wills, G., & Wald, M. (2018). Advantages and challenges of using e-assessment. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 8(1), 34–37.

Amos, A. A., Adelani, F. J., & Adebola, A. Y. (2015). The adoption of e-learning to the study of social studies at the secondary school levels in Nigeria. Asia Pacific Journal of Contemporary Education and Communication Technology, 1(1), 1–7.

Appiah, M., & Tonder, F. van. (2018). E-assessment in higher education: A review. International Journal of Business Management and Economic Research(IJBMER), 9(6), 1454–1460.

Arifuddin, A., Turmudi, T., & Rokhmah, U. N. (2021). Alternative assessments in online learning during Covid-19 pandemic: The strenghths and weaknesses. International Journal of Elementary Education, 5(2), 240–247.

Arrieta, G. S., Dancel, J. C., & Agbisit, M. J. P. (2020). Teaching science in the new normal: understanding the experiences of junior high school science teachers. Jurnal Pendidikan MIPA, 21(2), 146–162.

Bakia, M., Shear, L., Toyama, Y., & Lasseter, A. (2012). Understanding the implications of online learning for educational productivity. In Educational Technology. U.S. Department of Education.

Basham, J. D., Blackorby, J., & Marino, M. T. (2020). Opportunity in crisis: the role of universal design for learning in educational redesign. Learning Disabilities, 18(1), 71–91.

Batbaatar, N., & Amin, G. (2021). Students’ time management during online class. Education, 1(1), 189–194.

Bhandari, B., Chopra, D., & Singh, K. (2020). Self-directed learning: assessment of students’ abilities and their perspective. Advances in Physiology Education, 44(3), 383–386.

Çalıkoğlu, B. S. (2019). Challenge-oriented behavior types: A new explanation. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 12(2), 197–204.

Clarin, A. S., & Baluyos, E. L. (2022). Challenges encountered in the implementation of online distance learning. EduLine: Journal of Education and Learning Innovation, 2(1), 33–46.

Divayana, D. G. H., Adiarta, A., & Suyasa, P. W. A. (2021). Development of material contents and online assessment based on the Sevima Edlink platform for online learning of program evaluation subject during Covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Journal of Technology and Science Education (JOTSE), 11(2), 498–512.

Dwiyanti, K. E., & Suwastini, N. K. A. (2021). Assessment for writing skills in online learning. Lingua Scientia, 28(1), 8–19.

Efriana, L. (2021). Problems of online learning during Covid-19 pandemic in EFL classroom and the solution. JELITA: Journal of English Language Teaching and Literature, 2(1), 38–47.

Fathurrochman, I. (2021). Online evaluation system in the pandemic disruption in Madrasah: Opportunities and challenges based on qualitative report. Jurnal Iqra’ : Kajian Ilmu Pendidikan Kajian Ilmu Pendidikan, 6(2), 184–197.

Fauzani, R. A., Senen, A., & Retnawati, H. (2021). Challenges for elementary school teachers in attitude assessment during online learning. Journal of Education Research and Evaluation, 5(3), 362–372.

Fitriady, G., Sugiyanto, & Sugiarto, T. (2020). Penilaian online aspek kognitif dalam pendidikan tinggi. Gelanggang Pendidikan Jasmani Indonesia, 4(2), 25–30.

Fitriyah, I., & Jannah, M. (2021). Online assessment effect in EFL classroom: An investigation on students and teachers’ perceptions. IJELTAL (Indonesian Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics), 5(2), 265–284.

Fuller, R., Joynes, V., Cooper, J., Boursicot, K., & Roberts, T. (2020). Could Covid-19 be our ‘there is no alternative’ (TINA) opportunity to enhance assessment? Medical Teacher, 42(7), 781–786.

George, M. W. (2008). The elements of library research: What every student needs to know. Princeton University Press.

Gherheș, V., Stoian, C. E., Fărcașiu, M. A., & Stanici, M. (2021). E-learning vs. face-to-face learning: Analyzing students’ preferences and behaviors. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(8), 4381.

Guangul, F. M., Suhail, A. H., Khalit, M. I., & Khidhir, B. A. (2020). Challenges of remote assessment in higher education in the context of Covid-19: A case study of Middle East College. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 32(4), 519–535.

Hulbert, B., Berman, B. R., & Adams, S. (1997). Towards an understanding of “Opportunity.” Marketing Education Review, 7(3), 67–73.

Hung, L. T. (2021). How does online formative feedback impact student’s motivation and self-directed learning skills during the Covid-19 pandemic? Journal of Educational and Social Research, 11(5), 11–20.

Ja’ashan, M. N. H. (2020). The challenges and prospects of using e-learning among EFL students in Bisha University. Arab World English Journal, 11(1), 124–137.

Joshi, A., Vinay, M., & Bhaskar, P. (2020). Impact of coronavirus pandemic on the Indian education sector: Perspectives of teachers on online teaching and assessments. Interactive Technology and Smart Education, 18(2), 205–226.

Kitishat, A. R., Omar, K. H. Al, & Momani, M. A. K. Al. (2020). The Covid-19 crisis and distance learning: E-teaching of language between reality and challenges. Asian ESP Journal, 16(51), 316–326.

Kusuma, I. P. I., Mahayanti, N. W. S., Gunawan, M. H., Rachman, D., & Pratiwi, N. P. A. (2021). How well do e-portfolios facilitate students’ learning engagement in speaking courses during the Covid-19 pandemic? Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 11(2), 351–363.

Luthfiyyah, R., Aisyah, A., & Sulistyo, G. H. (2021). Technology-enhanced formative assessment in higher education: A voice from Indonesian EFL teachers. EduLite: Journal of English Education, Literature and Culture, 6(1), 42–54.

Madya, S. A., & Abdurahman. (2021). Online learning implementation during the Covid-19 pandemic. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 539, 26–31.

Mallillin, L. L. D., Mendoza, L. C., Mallillin, J. B., Felix, R. C., & Lipayon, I. C. (2020). Implementation and readiness of online learning pedagogy: A transition to Covid 19 pandemic. European Journal of Open Education and E-Learning Studies, 5(2), 71–90.

Meşe, E., & Sevilen, Ç. (2021). Factors influencing EFL students’ motivation in online learning: A qualitative case study. Journal of Educational Technology & Online Learning, 4(1), 11–22. jetol.817680.

Ningsih, T., Yuwono, D. M., Sholehuddin, M. S., & Suharto, A. W. B. (2021). The significant of e-assessment for Indonesian literacy with character education in pandemic era. Journal of Social Studies Education Research (JSSER), 12(4), 231–256.

Nurkamto, J., Prihandoko, L. A., Maret, U. S., Surakarta, K., & Java, C. (2022). Students’ problems of academic writing competencies, challenges in online thesis supervision, and the solutions: thesis supervisors’ perspectives. TEFLIN Journal, 33(1), 123–147.

Phanphech, P., Tanitteerapan, T., Mungkung, N., Arunrungrusmi, S., Chunkul, C., Songruk, A., Yuji, T., & Kinoshita, H. (2022). An analysis of student anxiety affecting on online learning on conceptual applications in Physics : Synchronous vs . asynchronous learning. Education Sciences, 12(278), 1–20.

Pokhrel, S., & Chhetri, R. (2021). A literature review on impact of Covid-19 pandemic on teaching and learning. Higher Education for the Future, 8(1), 133–141.

Rachmawati, D. L., Purwati, O., & Anam, S. (2022). ESP teachers’ sociocultural challenges in online formative assessment: voices of teachers, learners, and coordinators. Computer Assisted Language Learning Electronic Journal (CALL-EJ), 23(1), 150–167.

Rapanta, C., Botturi, L., Goodyear, P., Guàrdia, L., & Koole, M. (2020). Online university teaching during and after the Covid-19 crisis: Refocusing teacher presence and learning activity. Postdigital Science and Education, 2(3), 923–945.

Saputra, D. B., Ayudhia, H. Y., & Muswari, R. (2022). Teachers’ perceptions of challenges in online learning: voices from secondary EFL teachers. JOALL (Journal of Applied Linguistics and Literature), 7(1), 104–119.

Sujana, I. M., Udin, U., Susanti, N. W. M., & Arifuddin, A. (2020). Integrating the deductive method and holistic assessment approach to teaching English grammar in English education programmes. Indonesian TESOL Journal, 2(2), 99–115.

Syafrizal, S., & Pahamzah, J. (2020). Language assessment in English language teaching: A washback of Indonesian students’ test in Covid 19 situation. Journal of Southwest Jiaotong University, 55(4), 1–10.

Ukhrowiyah, N. F., Nasihah, M., & Pratawati, F. M. (2021). Language assessment in online learning: Challenges and effective strategies for ESP classrooms. Acitya: Journal of Teaching & Education, 3(1), 2021.

Verhoef, A. H., & Coetser, Y. M. (2021). Academic integrity of university students during emergency remote online assessment: An exploration of student voices. Transformation in Higher Education, 6, 1–12.

Wibowo, F. E., & Novitasari, U. (2021). An analysis of online assessment in teaching English. PROJECT (Professional Journal of English Education), 4(3), 521–529.

Widiastuti, I. A. M. S., Mantra, I. B. N., Sukoco, H., & Santosa, M. H. (2021). Online assessment strategies to enhance students’ competence and their implementational challenges. JEES (Journal of English Educators Society), 6(2), 245–251.

Yulianto, D., & Mujtahid, N. M. (2021). Online assessment during Covid-19 pandemic: EFL teachers’ perspectives and their practices. JET (Journal of English Teaching), 7(2), 229–242.

Zboun, J. S., & Farrah, M. (2021). Students’ perspectives of online language learning during corona pandemic: Benefits and challenges. Indonesian EFL Journal (IEFLJ), 7(1), 13–20.

Zhang, C., Yan, X., & Wang, J. (2021). EFL teachers’ online assessment practices during the Covid-19 pandemic: Changes and mediating factors. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 30(6), 499–507.


How to Cite
Diarsini, M. S., Artini, L. P., Padmadewi, N. N., Ratminingsih, N. M., Utami, I. G. A. L. P., & Marsakawati, N. P. E. (2022). Challenges and Opportunities of Online Assessment Implementation During Covid-19 Pandemic in Indonesia Based on Recent Studies. European Journal of Education and Pedagogy, 3(6), 82–88.