• Maria Fousteri 
  • Paraskevi Foti 

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The Early Childhood Education area and school in general should be the platform for the acquisition of knowledge by all children. Education is needed in which active experiences dominate, ensuring a better moral and intellectual education that leads to the desire to continuously acquire knowledge based on their interests in order to be able to cope with the demands of life on a personal and professional level. This paper attempts to show that a holistic approach to the Arts based on the modern pedagogical practices of Differentiated Teaching and the experiential and child-centered project method can be a main instrument for a pluralistic education space that responds to the wide range of diversity of children. The purpose of this paper is twofold. Firstly, to explore through a literature review the general characteristics of Differentiated Instruction and the Project Method, as well as what the role of the Early Childhood Educator should be. The following is a pedagogical activity that was carried out with children aged 3 to 4 years old in a preschool education center.

Introduction

According to research, kindergartens, nursery schools, and schools in general must apply modern educational practices such as the Interdisciplinary Work Plan, respecting the principles of Differentiated Instruction. Combining the two will yield the maximum learning outcome for all children.

Each child should be treated as an individual with his or her learning profile, level of readiness, preferences, and interests, which implies using strategies that focus on this and enable active engagement and learning (Ministry of Education, Sports, and Youth, 2020). This is only possible in a flexible learning framework that allows it to follow its learning paths and particular “intelligence” (Gelastopoulouet al., 2015). Gardner (1993) also recommended this, arguing that regardless of the subject being taught, teacher educators should use modern, diverse, and flexible strategies. Only then can they effectively respond to children’s different abilities and weaknesses according to the theory of multiple intelligences (Gardner, 1993). Early years education strengthens early academic skills, and there is evidence that the benefits of early years education are stronger for children with learning disabilities. This is because, through high-quality programs, academic inequalities are reduced (Magnuson & Waldfogel, 2005, as cited in DeBarysheet al., 2009).

It is necessary to modernize pedagogical practices and the inclusionary orientation of education because the preschool period is perhaps the most important period of the child’s development and the basis of his or her later development. Moreover, it is the only way to upgrade the field of preschool education to a center capable of meeting the demands of a rapidly changing and culturally diverse society, as well as to become a means of overcoming prejudice, creating a ‘welcoming’ community with the ultimate aim of consolidating an inclusive society and successful ‘education for all’ n line with the recommendation of the European Parliament and UNESCO (Gelastopoulouet al., 2015).

Differentiated Instruction

Differentiated is the approach in which instruction is differentiated and adapted based on students’ individual characteristics, needs and abilities, language background, interests, academic skills, and learning pace, as well as responsive feedback (Burkett, 2013; Fykariset al., 2019; Tomlinsonet al., 2003), so that it is considered capable of responding to the heterogeneity of the student population, the variety of different ways of thinking and different ways of learning (Argyropoulos, 2013; Taylor, 2015), thus creating a school for all (Kakana, 2020; Mavidou, 2020).

There are many fields of research on which it has been based since the beginning of the 20th century and later. The most important is the work of Bloom on the psychology of individual differences and supportive education, the pedagogy of Dewey, Decroly, Claparede, Kerchesteiner, Freinet, Montessori pedagogy, and the pedagogy of Froebel and Pestallozi, each of which focus on the uniqueness of the child, his or her needs for learning and development (Gelastopoulouet al., 2015).

Differentiated instruction has been identified as an innovative teaching approach because it gives great visibility and value to the child’s uniqueness without isolating him/her from the classroom (Mavidou, 2020). It is a pedagogical theory, a philosophical framework that assumes that teacher-educators adapt their practices taking into account the diversity among children on the basis that “one size does not fit all, (Willis & Mann, 2000) thus negating the notion of “average” students (Tomlinsonet al., 2003). Indeed, it is the subject of a UNESCO (2004) guide on the subject entitled ‘Changing Teaching Practices: Using Curriculum Differentiation in Order to Respond to Students’ Diversity” (Changing Teaching Practices: using curriculum differentiation to respond to students’ diversity).

The basic principles behind it are the following:

  1. Everyone without exception can learn, so it must be ensured that all students are provided with appropriate learning experiences (Panteliadou & Filippatou, 2013; Vygotsky, 1978).
  2. All children have the right to high-quality education (Fykariset al., 2019).
  3. The progress of all students is expected, recognized, and rewarded (Mavidou & Kakana, 2019).
  4. Classroom students have common needs, discrete needs, and personal needs (Logan, 2011).
  5. Learning occurs when the child feels safe because otherwise intense pressure and rejection set all neurophysiological functions towards self-protection, which works to inhibit the learning process (Dimitropoulou, 2013).

Based on the principles, differentiated instruction is distinguished for the variety of characteristics of the teaching content and the way it is presented, for multiple modes of action and expression of students, and for their active participation (Fykariset al., 2019). In addition, the teacher makes differentiations and adaptations depending on the students (Kakana, 2020).

Differentiated instruction coming from the field of general education (Tomlinsonet al., 2003) and Adaptations from the corresponding field of Special Education have the common goal of achieving accessibility in education for as many children as possible (Argyropoulos, 2013; Stasinos, 2020) and, consequently, to address school failure and school dropout (Gelastopoulouet al., 2015).

The Role of the Teacher in the Differentiation of Teaching

The role of the educator-teacher is crucial. The characteristics that should distinguish him/her are the following: to have a system and organization in his/her work, to be clear, to differentiate his/her program (Taylor, 2015) and to individualize it (Kakana, 2020), so that all children benefit, to use a variety of materials and techniques (Fykariset al., 2019), to show a keen interest in his work, to know how to ask all types of questions (Trillianos, 2003), because through them children’s involvement in the learning process is achieved, to take into account the ideas and skills of his students (Valianti, 2013), to be supportive, to praise and encourage and to provide opportunities for initiative and self-direction (Argyropoulos, 2013; Trillianos, 2003).

According to Vygotsky, the teacher must ensure that all children are provided with competing experiences within their understanding and perception to achieve individual knowledge (Vygotsky, 1978). He achieves this by designing his program based on the learning style (Tomlinsonet al., 2003). Learning occurs when the child interacts with the social environment and is ready to internalize his/her experience (Dimitropoulou, 2013). Through the collaborative learning process, i.e., through interpersonal activities, communication, and cooperation, children can construct new knowledge (Fykariset al., 2019; Stasinos, 2020), a fundamental principle of constructivism. They investigate a problem that is a common goal within a friendly and warm climate (Fykaris et al., The role of the educator-teacher is crucial. The characteristics that should distinguish him/her are the following: to have a system and organization in his/her work, to be clear, to differentiate his/her program (Taylor, 2015) and to individualize it (Kakana, 2020), so that all children benefit, to use a variety of materials and techniques (Fykariset al., 2019), to show a keen interest in his work, to know how to ask all types of questions (Trillianos, 2003), because through them children’s involvement in the learning process is achieved, to take into account the ideas and skills of his students (Valianti, 2013), to be supportive, to praise and encourage and to provide opportunities for initiative and self-direction (Argyropoulos, 2013; Trillianos, 2003).

According to Vygotsky, the teacher must ensure that all children are provided with competing experiences within their understanding and perception to achieve individual knowledge (Vygotsky, 1978). He achieves this by designing his program based on the learning style (Tomlinsonet al., 2003). Learning occurs when the child interacts with the social environment and is ready to internalize his/her experience (Dimitropoulou, 2013). Through the collaborative learning process, i.e., through interpersonal activities, communication, and cooperation, children can construct new knowledge (Fykariset al., 2019; Stasinos, 2020), a fundamental principle of constructivism. They investigate a problem that is a common goal within a friendly and warm climate (Fykariset al., 2019). Differentiated Instruction, as it follows from the above, is a methodology that provides access to children’s Zone of Imminent Development, as defined by Vygotsky (DeBarysheet al., 2009; Vygotsky, 1978). The teacher-educator is the animator, who encourages and activates, and the mediator indirectly regulates the flow of action (Trillianos, 2003).

According to Jacobson and Xu (2004), the teacher should create mixed-ability teams where members’ abilities work complementarily, taking into account their weaknesses and strengths (Stasinos, 2020). In this way, respect for diversity, empathy, and awareness of the needs of others are promoted (Dahlberget al., 2013). Thus, every child is welcomed and accepted in this context, even if their abilities are differentiated.

The teacher-educator applying differentiated teaching through work groups provides the opportunity for children to cultivate their social and emotional skills, their self-esteem is enhanced, they learn to recognize and manage their feelings, especially unpleasant ones, as well as their stress, to make responsible decisions, to recognize their abilities and needs (Panteliadou & Filippatou, 2013).

The end product of this holistic educational approach is the mental health of all children and providing opportunities to improve their academic competence (Dimitropoulou, 2013). Thus, in line with international recommendations, the fight against exclusion and school failure in education and training is achieved (Gelastopoulouet al., 2015).

The Project Method

The word project comes from the Latin projicere, which means to plan, to aim, to put something in my mind (Frey, 1986). In Greek literature, it is described as an “Experiential-Communicative Method or Method of Work Plans” (Chrysafidis, 2006). It was first used by educators at the beginning of our century. Specifically, the first educator was Richards, and he meant by this word the teaching of manual work according to a certain way (Frey, 1986).

Kilpatrick, a professor at Columbia University and a proponent of the pragmatism movement, was the first to introduce complex research theory in 1918. According to him, the project method is defined “as a deliberate act, the hearty purposeful act that takes place in a social environment” (Kilpatrick, 1918).

Moss Van Duzer argues that it is a didactic approach, originating from the field of constructivism, through which learning is presented to students through the solution of problems or products that they themselves have to develop and which results from the cooperation of their group, as well as their interconnection with others (local community, institutions, organizations). Thus, knowledge is actively constructed by the children themselves, but also socially through their interactions, as Vygotsky (Vygotsky, 1978) argued.

According to Frey (1986), the Project method is an open learning process whose boundaries and procedures are not strictly defined, so it evolves according to the needs and interests of the participants (Frey, 1986). According to Chrysafidis (2006), it is understood as a form of teaching process whose reflections are the reflections of individual individuals or the whole teaching group. Moreover, according to Katz and Chart (1989) it is an in-depth exploration of a topic that is worth learning more about and is worthy of the attention and energy of all children (Lagoudaki, 2018).

Learning is achieved through self-activity, initiative, experience, cooperation, creativity, and free expression. It is an interdisciplinary, interdisciplinary and group-centered educational practice through which students develop social skills, codes of conduct, and critical thinking and are invited to engage in problem-solving or exploration of issues (Chrysafidis, 2006). It is an approach that is inextricably linked to children’s everyday life experiences, as the issues stem from the world that is familiar to them in order to lead them to knowledge through targeted activity (Lagoudaki, 2018). It should be noted, according to the international literature, that both guiding questions, ideas, and activities emerge through the collaboration of the educator-teacher with the children so that they become learning experiences and experiences (Kaldi, 2013). This is exactly what Dewey, the main representative of the School of Work, argued that learning should be a journey of experiences inextricably linked to children’s real life, desires, and interests because only then is it memorable and a valuable asset for later life (Trillianos, 2003).

During the project, the role of the teacher is to advise, guide, coordinate, and communicate (Kaldi, 2013; Trillianos, 2003). From omniscient agent and exclusive transmitter of knowledge, he/she becomes a collaborator and co-investigator in learning. He provides help only when it is needed, participates equally as much as possible, and offers encouragement and discreet support in difficult moments (Chrysafidis, 2006). He facilitates children to conquer knowledge by helping them externalize their representations of their thoughts and carry out explorations in a climate of understanding and acceptance (Lagoudaki, 2018).

In terms of the duration of implementation, the project is a complex creative work that can last from a few hours (small projects), a day to a week (medium projects), as well as from a week to years (long projects) (Frey, 1986). In the second case, collaboration with external collaborators is necessary, while in the third case, the aim is to explore issues of local or wider interest that are applicable to public opinion (Frey, 1986).

Regardless of the duration of their implementation, the most important thing is that learning through projects enables teacher-educators to take into account the different learning profiles of children, which results in this teaching method being able to respond to teaching practices that respect the differentiation and heterogeneity of children as well as the right of active participation of all (Kaldi, 2013). In fact, results of studies such as Dresden and Lee (2007) showed that children, after active participation and involvement in the project, had more to say both quantitatively and qualitatively, indicating that better learning outcomes are achieved through this method (Lagoudaki, 2018).

Characteristics of the Creative Approach Through the Arts

The characteristics of the creative approach through the Arts that aims at the active participation of all children are as follows (Ministry of Education, Sports, and Youth, 2020; Stephanopoulou, 2015; Woo, 2013):

  1. The exploratory-reflective approach (principle of constructivism, socio-cultural constructivism) is supported by methods of experiential knowledge acquisition.
  2. The empirical-experiential engagement is through visits to nature, the city, museums, artists’ workshops, and through the various forms of theatre games.
  3. Group collaborative practice is applied (Perakaki, 2009), which encourages cooperation between children, the exchange of opinions, ideas, and skills, and the application of decisions during the implementation of visual, musical, or theatrical activity.
  4. The collection and organization of materials and tools by the educator are done in such a way that the children can easily find and select them on their own according to their expressive goals and abilities, which is an important part of the artistic process (Chapman, 1993).
  5. The use of new technologies is age-appropriate for preschool children, especially open educational technology (Open Educational Technology) (Foti, 2020). The use of Web 2.0 applications has the power to pave the way for self-directed learning and the equal participation of all children, regardless of any learning and behavioral difficulties and problems, through the provision of a variety of media with particular flexibility (Toki & Drosos, 2019) involving many senses with beautiful colors and graphics.
  6. There is an atmosphere of creativity, joy, enthusiasm, and acceptance in the classroom. There is an atmosphere that allows children to invent and improvise in their own way without feeling judged or evaluated (Kotsiopoulou, 2018). They are able to be free, to be themselves without feeling anxious or insecure (Faure & Lascar, 1994).
  7. The role of the educator is to be supportive, encouraging, and focused on building the positive self-image of all children, regardless of their age. More specifically: (a) organizes and ensures an appropriate learning environment in a way that promotes learning for all children; (b) builds a culture that fosters creativity, ingenuity, experimentation, constructive receptivity to error, risk-taking, and criticism; (c) promotes a positive social environment by bridging potential inequalities; (d) interacts effectively with children by helping them to develop their ideas and is a partner in the construction of knowledge.

Through the spirit of a holistic approach to the Arts, all children succeed in developing their innate and potential abilities and skills, as well as using many types of “intelligence” (Stephanopoulou, 2015) in a natural and enjoyable way. A natural consequence of this approach is to produce multi-dimensional, creative, and innovative individuals (Hall, 2015).

Presentation of Pedagogical Action

The Pedagogical action is entitled “Autumn quests.” It was applied to children aged 3 to 4 years old in a Primary Children’s Station in the Northern Suburbs. This particular group of children is characterized by heterogeneity in terms of the children’s learning profile and their interests. More specifically, the team consists of fifteen children, of which:

  1. One child not speaking the Greek language,
  2. Two children having several difficulties in their speech, mainly in terms of articulation,
  3. Four children showing weakness in terms of fine manipulation.

They come from middle to affluent economic backgrounds. In terms of their learning abilities, there is a variation from average to high due to their age. Two children were three years old, while the rest were approaching the age of four.

The occasion for the implementation of this pedagogical action was the confluence of interest and disorder. On the one hand, the children showed interest in the three new trees planted in the yard of the kindergarten, and on the other hand, they frequently mischief-played with water.

Method

The project lasted 3 months and was looked at from different perspectives. In accordance with the Interdisciplinary Integrated Curriculum Framework for Early Childhood, activities were designed that covered the following curricular subjects:

  1. Child and Language
  2. Child and Creation-Expression (Visual Arts, Music, Drama, Theatre)
  3. Child and Mathematics
  4. Child and Informatics
  5. Child and Environment

The topic was examined interdisciplinarily, collaboratively, exploratorily, and reflectively, using digital material creatively. The engagement was carried out through interdisciplinary activities, a variety of strategies, and differentiated material, respecting the diversity of each child in the group, their needs and interests.

Purpose

The purpose of the project is to highlight the creative approach of the Differianted Teaching and the Project Method in Early Childhood Education through the contact of children with nature, their acquaintance with the beauties of autumn and with a particularly dear element, water, as well as through their awareness of its value in human life.

Material

The materials used were children’s literature books related to the topic; music and songs; painting materials (brushes, watercolors, markers, crayons, tempera crayons) and easel; clay and plasticine materials, plasticine, engraving tools; sound reproduction equipment; educational videos from the internet; computer; various materials for conducting experiments; recyclable materials; open digital material/logic for young children.

Planning of the Pedagogical Action

The organization and execution of the plan are in line with Kilpatrick’s principle that “the teacher guides and directs the planning and intervenes only when the students need help” (Frey, 1986). The role of the principal investigator as an educator was, as contemporary educational practice dictates, that of observer-recorder, animator, and regulator. At the same time, she ensured that the space was organized appropriately and informed the parents about the activity so that they could assist in providing additional materials. He also informed the Department Directorate of the Organization of the Children’s Centers in order to enrich the educational program through cooperation with other institutions. In particular, cooperation with the Greenery Department and the visit of an agronomist to the Children’s Center was achieved. More detailed phases of the project:

Phase 1: The starting point was the stimulus that piqued the children’s interest, as mentioned earlier.

Phase 2: This was followed by group discussion and an exchange of views and questions, which then served as a guide for action.

Phase 3: Formulation of the framework for action.

  • The project unfolded in a friendly and warm atmosphere of respect and cooperation.
  • The theme was common, but there was variety in the way it was presented. There were visual, tactile, and auditory ways of presenting the information, emphasizing the important points and avoiding the description of details.
  • The activities, characterized by diversity, in order to meet the children’s abilities and interests, were also characterized by flexibility so that there was the possibility of adapting the practical part to face possible difficulties.
  • The children participated in activities with the same content but with a different degree and type of support and feedback and with a different level of difficulty in some cases.
  • The project included individual and group activities, which were carried out through a variety of educational materials.
  • The project occupied between half and two hours of the daily educational program for three months.

Phase 4: Organizing the classroom.

-The classroom corners were equipped with appropriate materials, providing all children with easy access and experimentation.

-Often, the classroom took the form of a workshop or parallel workshops, where children participated either individually or in groups depending on the activity.

-The arrangement of the classroom tables and furniture, in general, was also changed when necessary to facilitate the pedagogical activity.

Activities

Child and Language

The reading of fairy tales and stories from Mythology, the recitation of poems, as well as the viewing of educational videos from the internet through the rich thematic content of the project, in addition to their educational role, contributed significantly to the enrichment of the children’s vocabulary. The approach varied from day to day according to the needs and wishes of the children. They had the opportunity to process and read in their own way the material given to them, regardless of the source (book, educational video, painting), and after synthesizing all of them, they created their own story, which they then told to the group. At the same time, they had the impetus to move from image to paper, from “reading” to writing either manually or digitally through the free Tux Paint software that provides them with a blank canvas and a variety of tools to create. This gave the children a choice according to their learning profile and interests. They also used the keywords “tree,” “recycling,” “water journey,” and “drop” to search the internet and watched several educational videos.

Child and Creation–Expression

Visuals

The information or new knowledge that the children received was accompanied by artwork. Through the workshops, the children came into contact with many and varied materials (recyclable and others), as well as various techniques such as painting, clay plastic, plasticine, collage, and printing. The activities are many and varied so that all children can participate equally and actively, utilizing their skills and talents. More specifically, individual work was carried out in small groups of 2 to 5 children depending on the degree of difficulty in order to provide individualized help to the children who needed it. All these artistic creations of the children were the pages of the digital book created with the application Canva (see Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. The digital book “Autumn”.

The children were given the opportunity to take up clay and plasticine sculptures. In these activities, there was variation in the degree of assistance provided. They also came into contact with the works of great painters: Viorel Marginean, Claude Monet, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Gogen, Vincent Van Gogh, Gustav Klimt, Ferdinand Hodler, Egon Schie-le, Jacek Yerka, Zaozersky Vitali, Leonid Afremov. After choosing the painting of their choice, they created great painters on an easel (see Fig. 2). For some children who found such a task difficult, they were given the option to create either through digital drawing with the help of the free software Tux Paint (see Fig. 3) or a free drawing on paper of the measure.

Fig. 2. Children’s paintings on an easel inspired by the works of great painters.

Fig. 3. Digital paintings made with Tux paint software.

Theatrical Game

These activities are characterized by flexibility so that all children can participate equally and actively while having the opportunity to develop personally and interpersonally through interaction with others.

  • Guided improvisation entitled “A walk in the woods” (see Fig. 4): The children were transformed by the “magic wand” of the main researcher, who is the Head Teacher of the department, into little animals, which during their walk met various adventures.
  • Drama (see Fig. 5): The story of the goddess Demeter and the abduction of her daughter, Persephone, was so much liked by the children that, after encouragement, they wanted to revive the myth. After discussion, they chose the role of their choice and then the costumes and accessories they would need for their footwear from the nursery’s cloakroom. The most talented children chose the leading roles, while others preferred to be in the group “friends of Pluto” and “friends of Persephone”.
  • Dramatization of the custom of Perperuna after we talked about the drought (see Fig. 6): This game was played several times because all the girls wanted to take the leading role. But it was not the same because each child with her own distinct personality colored it differently.

Fig. 4. The guided improvisation “A walk in the forest.”.

Fig. 5. A scene from the theatrical event.

Fig. 6. Dramatization of the custom of “Perperouna”.

Music

Through autumn songs, rhythmic movements, and dance, the children were able to develop better control of their bodies to develop spatial and kinesthetic skills. They also all had the opportunity to express themselves freely. The only thing that differentiated them was that some showed more interest in songs, while others preferred free movement and dance. In fact, the children were given the opportunity to present individually to the group what they liked best, whether it was a song or a dance move. Then, they were generously applauded by everyone.

  • Child and Mathematics

Through artwork, as well as paintings, the children dealt with colors, shapes and sizes, made correspondences, and also, after observing the same painting by Claude Monet entitled “Winters at the End of the Day” in different seasons, Autumn and Summer, made comparisons” (see Fig. 7). They found that while they were looking at “the same painting,” the colors were different in these two paintings and that they were “brighter,” “lighter,” “not darker” in the summer painting.

Fig. 7. Observing the same painting by Claude Monet.

  • Child and IT

Through the Tux Paint software for young children, as already mentioned, they were given an additional option to draw and paint digitally in a completely different way (see Fig. 3). Also, regarding the mathematics teaching subject, the children, mainly the older ones, through the free Open-Source software GCompris and Kindspiration, had the opportunity to exercise their perception and observation through the activities “Picture Finder” and “Fine Arts,” where they had to make comparisons, find similarities, differences, and details from paintings (see Fig. 8).

Fig. 8. Observation exercises with GCompris software.

  • Child and the Natural Environment

Experiments with water (rain experiment, coloring of water from wafers of different colors): the children, through the experiential approach and through observation, came to their own conclusions. In addition, the older children were given the opportunity to participate in a digital experiment in an interactive and playful way through the GCompris software. Through the Tux Paint software for young children, as already mentioned, they were given an additional option to draw and paint digitally in a completely different way (see Fig. 3).

Planted bulbs with the guidance of the Municipality’s agronomist (see Fig. 9). The knowledge that the children gained from the stories, tales, and educational videos of this educational action helped them to realize how important trees, water, and nature in general are in life. Their answers were recorded with the help of the Kindspiration software (see Fig. 10). They were then given a suggestion by the main researcher to create future responsible and active citizens.

Fig. 9. Cooperation with the municipal agronomist-gardening workshop.

Fig. 10. Children’s answers about the importance of trees, water, and nature to life” recorded with Kindspiration software.

Results and Discussion

The evaluation of pedagogical action is the reflection and assessment of the objectives pursued. The completion of the project entitled “Autumn Searches” was a success, which created a feeling of euphoria for everyone. More specifically:

  1. Based on the modern pedagogical practices of Differentiated Instruction and Project, a Productive Program, experiential, group-centered, based on co-construction, search, observation, exploration, free expression, joy, cooperation, and dialogue, was carried out.
  2. The children had the opportunity to use multiple intelligences, develop their talents, improve their weaknesses, cultivate their social skills, and, in general, develop all-round. This was true for all regardless of their age, learning style, needs, and interests, thanks to the differentiation in the presentation of the subject matter, the activities the children were involved in, and the learning environment. All this is achieved through the colorful world of the arts, where flexibility and variety in the design and implementation of teaching are easily and naturally achieved.
  3. All the children participated in the learning process actively and without stress thanks to the different ways of encouragement and encouragement from the main researcher, respecting the individual personality and temperament of each one.
  4. The children acquired ecological awareness. Every day, they continue to plant the pots with the bulbs they planted. At the same time, recycling of waste materials has become part of their lives.
  5. The use of digital material showed that ICT and Open-Source software played a supporting role in the teaching and learning of young children in a pleasant and creative way.
  6. This pedagogical action functioned as a civil society forum in which children, educators, parents, and local government bodies participated.
  7. All in all, it was a beautiful and constructive experience for everyone.
  8. In fact, the enthusiasm and joy from this creative process were so great that it made us want to continue it throughout the year. Thus, the children’s “quest” did not stop in autumn but would continue in other seasons through the colorful world of art.

Conclusion

Through a contemporary view of the Arts with the application of Differentiated Teaching and the Project Method, the all-round development of all children, regardless of their age, as well as the cultivation of their social skills, is achieved. For this reason, it should be an integral part of the Daily Program for every Early Childhood Educator working in the field of Early Childhood Education and Training.

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