Postgraduate Students’ Views on Mentoring in the Educational and Academic Context


  •   Pelagia A. Stravakou

  •   Evangelia C. Lozgka


Mentoring has been a highly discussed issue in the education literature lately. This study explored Greek postgraduate students’ views regarding mentoring in Greek primary and higher education. Unlike previous research, in the present study we did not use predefined themes or definitions to explore mentoring. Instead, the purpose was to allow participants’ definitions and opinions about the issue to emerge. Therefore, the spontaneous texts written by the participants during an hour were used as a research tool, while the 38 written texts accumulated were analyzed by the qualitative content analysis method. Findings indicated that the prevailing themes of mentoring in the literature, such as mentoring functions, outcomes, and purposes, were referred by the participants. Despite the similarities found for mentoring in both contexts studied, some differences also emerged, concerning the type of the mentoring relationship preferred and the purposes of mentoring in each context. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications.

Keywords: Higher Education, Mentoring, Postgraduate Students, Primary Education, Qualitative Content Analysis, Tutoring


Agholor, D., Lleo de Nalda, A., & Bárcena, N. S. (2017). Mentoring future engineers in higher education: A descriptive study using a developed conceptual framework. Production, 27(spe), e20162207.

Anderson, E. M., & Shannon, A. L. (1988). Toward a conceptualization of mentoring. Journal of Teacher Education, 39(1), 38-42. doi:10.1177/002248718803900109

Ambrosetti, A., & Dekkers, J. (2010). The interconnectedness of the roles of mentors and mentees in pre-service teacher education mentoring relationships. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 35(6), 42-55. DOI: 10.14221/ajte.2010v35n6.3

Barrera, A., Braley, R. T., & Slate, J. R. (2010). Beginning teacher success: An investigation into the feedback from mentors of formal mentoring programs. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 18(1), 61-74. DOI: 10.1080/13611260903448383

Bean, N. M., Lucas, L., & Hyers, L. L. (2014). Mentoring in higher education should be the norm to assure success: Lessons learned from the Faculty Mentoring Program, West Chester University, 2008-2011. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 22(1), 56-73.

Bozeman, B., & Feeney, M. K. (2007). Toward a useful theory of mentoring: A conceptual analysis and critique. Administration & Society, 39(6), 719-739.

Brewerton, A. (2002). Mentoring. LIBER Quarterly: The Journal of the Association of European Research Libraries, 12(4), 361–380. DOI: 10.18352/lq.7703

Cain, T. (2009). Mentoring trainee teachers: How can mentors use research?. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 17(1), 53-66.

Campbell, T. A., & Campbell, D. E. (1997). Faculty-student mentor program: Effects on academic performance and retention. Research in Higher Education, 38(6), 727-742.

Caspersen, J. (2013). Professionalism among novice teachers. How they think, act, cope and perceive knowledge (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Available at:

Chatzidimou, D. Ch. (2015). Eisagogi stin Paidagogiki: Symvoli sti diachysi tis paidagogikis skepsis (4i ekd.). Thessaloniki: Afoi Kyriakidi ekdoseis a.e. Greek.

Clayton, J. K., Sanzo, K. L., & Myran, S. (2013). Understanding mentoring in leadership development: Perspectives of district administrators and aspiring leaders. Journal of Research on Leadership Education, 8(1), 77-96. doi: 10.1177/1942775112464959

Collings, R., Swanson, V., & Watkins, R. (2014). The impact of peer mentoring on levels of student wellbeing, integration and retention: A controlled comparative evaluation of residential students in UK higher education. Higher Education, 68(6), 927-942. doi: 10.1007/s10734-014-9752-y

Council of Europe. (2020). Council conclusions on European teachers and trainers for the future. Official Journal of the European Union, 11-19. C_.2020.193.01.0011. 01.ENG

Ehrich, L., Tennent, L., & Hansford, B. (2002). A review of mentoring in education: Some lessons for nursing. Contemporary Nurse, 12(3), 253-264. doi: 10.5172/conu.12.3.253

European Commission. (2010). Developing coherent and system-wide induction programmes for beginning teachers: A handbook for policymakers. European Commission Staff Working Document SEC, 538 final. Brussels: European Commission. Available at:

Fletcher, S. H., & Barrett, A. (2004). Developing effective beginning teachers through mentor‐based induction. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 12(3), 321-333. doi: 10.1080/030910042000275936

Fullick, J. M., Smith-Jentsch, K. A., Yarbrough, C. S., & Scielzo, S. A. (2012). Mentor and protégé goal orientations as predictors of newcomer stress. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 12(1), 59-73.

Garza, R. (2012). Initiating opportunities to enhance preservice teachers’ pedagogical knowledge: Perceptions about mentoring at-risk adolescents. Journal of Urban Learning, Teaching, and Research, 8, 26-35.

Haggard, D. L., Dougherty, T. W., Turban, D. B., & Wilbanks, J. E. (2011). Who is a mentor?: A review of evolving definitions and implications for research. Journal of Management, 37(1), 280-304.

Hobson, A. J., Ashby, P., Malderez, A., & Tomlinson, P. D. (2009). Mentoring beginning teachers: What we know and what we don’t. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25, 207-216. doi:10.1016/j.tate.2008.09.001

Husband, P. A., & Jacobs, P. A. (2009). Peer mentoring in higher education: A review of the current literature and recommendations for implementation of mentoring schemes. The Plymouth Student Scientist, 2(1), 228-241.

Ingersoll, R. M., & Strong, M. (2011). The impact of induction and mentoring programs for beginning teachers: A critical review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 81(2), 201-233. doi: 10.3102/0034654311403323

Johnson, W. B. (2003). A framework for conceptualizing competence to mentor. Ethics & Behavior, 13(2), 127-151.

Knippelmeyer, S. A., & Torraco, R. J. (2007). Mentoring as a developmental tool for higher education. Retrieved June 12, 2021 from

Kougiourouki, M. (2013). I symvoli tis mikrodidaskalias sti didaktiki etoimotita tou ekpaideftikou: Apopseis foititon. Sto: M. Kougiourouki, P. Stravakou, & K. Chatzidimou (Epim.), Paidagogikes kai didaktikes erevnitikes meletes: Timitiko afieroma stin kathigitria Eleni Ef. Taratori-Tsalkatidou (ss. 143-162). Thessaloniki: Ekdotikos Oikos Adelfon Kyriakidi a.e. Greek.

Law 4547/2018. Anadiorganosi ton domon ypostirixis tis protovathmias kai defterovathmias ekpaidefsis kai alles diataxeis. Greek.

Law 4009/2011. Domi, leitourgia, diasfalisi tis poiotitas ton spoudon kai diethnopoiisi ton anotaton ekpaideftikon idrymaton. Greek.

Law 3848/2010. Anavathmisi tou rolou tou ekpaideftikou - kathierosi kanonon axiologisis kai axiokratias stin ekpaidefsi kai loipes diataxeis. Greek.

Leck, J., & Orser, B. (2013). Fostering trust in mentoring relationships: An exploratory study. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 32(4), 410-425. doi: 10.1108/EDI-01-2010-0007

Little, J. W. (1990). Chapter 6: The Mentor Phenomenon and the Social Organization of Teaching. Review of Research in Education, 16(1), 297-351. doi:10.3102/0091732X016001297

Lunsford, L., Crisp, G., Dolan, E. L., & Wuetherick, B. (2017). Mentoring in higher education. Retrieved June 12, 2021 from in_Higher_Education

Merriam, S. B., Thomas, T. K., & Zeph, C. P. (1987). Mentoring in higher education: What we know now. The Review of Higher Education, 11(2), 199-210. doi: 10.1353/rhe.1987.0004

Russell, M. L., & Russell, J. A. (2011). Mentoring relationships: Cooperating teachers’ perspectives on mentoring student interns. Professional Educator, 35(1). Retrieved July 29, 2021 from

Schreier, M. (2012). Qualitative content analysis in practice. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.

See, N. L. M. (2014). Mentoring and developing pedagogical content knowledge in beginning teachers. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 123, 53-62.

Stravakou, P. A. (2019a). Postgraduate students’ views on their assessment and evaluation at university: A case study. International Journal of Education and Research, 7(8), 75-84. Retrieved from August-2019/07.pdf

Stravakou, P. A. (2019b). Selecting school principals in Greece in the last fifteen years: A theoretical approach. Journal of Advances in Education and Philosophy, 3(8), 277-282.Retrieved from JAEP-38-277-282-c.pdf

Stravakou, P. A. (2007). Mentoras. Sto: P. D. Xochellis (Epim.), Lexiko tis Paidagogikis (s.s. 440-442). Thessaloniki: Ekdotikos Oikos Adelfon Kyriakidi a.e. Greek.

Stravakou, P. A. (2003). O diefthyntis tis scholikis monadas protovathmias kai defterovathmias ekpaidefsis: Theoritiki analysi kai empeiriki dierevnisi. Thessaloniki: Ekdotikos Oikos Adelfon Kyriakidi a.e. Greek.

Strong, M., & Baron, W. (2004). An analysis of mentoring conversations with beginning teachers: Suggestions and responses. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20(1), 47-57.

Sundli, L. (2007). Mentoring – a new mantra for education?. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 201-214.

Taratori, E. (2004). Daskalos i daskala; Oi mathites epilegoun - mia poiotiki erevna. Sto: D. Chatzidimou, E. Taratori, M. Kougiourouki, & P. Stravakou (Epim.), Praktika tou 4ou Panelliniou Synedriou tis Paidagogikis Etaireias Ellados: Elliniki Paidagogiki kai Ekpaideftiki Erevna (ss. 757-764). Thessaloniki: Ekdotikos Oikos Adelfon Kyriakidi a.e. Greek.

Viorel, C. I. (2018). The need for mentoring in the preuniversity educational system. In S. Văduna, I. Ș. Fotea, & A. R. Thomas (Eds.), Solutions for Business, Culture and Religion in Eastern Europe and Beyond: The 2016 Griffiths School of Management Annual Conference on Business, Entrepreneurship and Ethics (GSMAC) (pp. 89-97). Switzerland: Springer.

Wai-Packard, B. (2009). Definition of mentoring. Retrieved June 10, from

Woodd, M. (1997). Mentoring in further and higher education: Learning from the literature. Education + Training, 39(9), 333-343.


How to Cite
Stravakou, P. A., & Lozgka, E. C. (2022). Postgraduate Students’ Views on Mentoring in the Educational and Academic Context. European Journal of Education and Pedagogy, 3(3), 42–51.