Social Acceptability of Non-Formal Education in India


Non-formal education provides a viable alternative to meet the educational needs of people who, for certain reasons, are not in a position to avail the opportunities provided by the formal education system. As per the literature, there is a general perception that people have a negative attitude towards such a mode of education. For a successful application of a non-formal education program, it is important to determine and evaluate the social acceptance of such programs as regardless of its advantages, it will not be adopted and sustained by the people if there is no social acceptance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the social acceptability of non-formal education. Data was collected through structured interviews on a sample of 200 pass-outs. The findings reveal that these non-formal programs have great acceptability, at least amongst the people who are known to the participants, which may be due to the fact that participation and the perception of such programs are linked. The study recommends NFE programs be promoted and success stories publicised amongst the non-participants of NFE for bringing about a change in general perception.

  1. Addison, S. L. (2008). Opportunities And Challenges Of The Textiles Component Of Skills Training And Employment Placement (Step) Programme In Ashanti Region–Ghana. School of Graduate Studies, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology.  |   Google Scholar
  2. Adewale, B. A., Aderonmu, P. A., Fulani, O. A., Babalola, O. D., & Awoyera, P. O. (2018). Societal attitude towards vocational education in Ogun State, Nigeria. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 9(8), 1029–1040.  |   Google Scholar
  3. Ambag, S. C., & Bernarte, R. P. (2015). Technical Vocational Education in the Eye of Professionals. European Academic Research, 2 (11), 1–15.  |   Google Scholar
  4. Ayonmike, C. (2014). Factors affecting female participation in technical education programme: A study of Delta State University, Abraka. Journal of Education and Human Development, 3(3), 227–240.  |   Google Scholar
  5. Babu, L. (2013). A Study On Skill Development Training Materials And Its Effects Among Neo-Literate [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Madras.  |   Google Scholar
  6. Dike, V. E. (2009). Addressing Youth Unemployment And Poverty In Nigeria: A Call For Action, Not Rhetoric. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 11(3).  |   Google Scholar
  7. Dokubo, C., & Dokubo, I. (2013). Identifiable Problems Inhibiting The Effective Management Of Vocational Education Programmes In Nigerian Universities. European Scientific Journal, 9(22).  |   Google Scholar
  8. Edoka, R., Abutu, J. A., & Jimoh, A. J. (2015). The Challenges Of Vocational And Technical Education Programme In Nigerian Colleges Of Education. African Education Indices, 8(1).  |   Google Scholar
  9. Horner, R. H., Carr, E. G., Halle, J., McGee, G., Odom, S., & Wolery, M. (2005). The Use of Single-Subject Research to Identify Evidence-Based Practice in Special Education. Exceptional Children, 71(2), 165–179.  |   Google Scholar
  10. Ito, M., Gutiérrez, K., Livingstone, S., Penuel, B., Rhodes, J., Salen, K., Schor, J., Sefton-Green, J., & Watkins, S. C. (2013). Connected learning: An agenda for research and design. Digital Media and Learning Research Hub.  |   Google Scholar
  11. Kapur, L. (2021). Skill Development Opportunities and Its Influence On Employability Of Urban Women [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Jamia Millia Islamia University.  |   Google Scholar
  12. Konantambigi, R. M., Meghani, S., & Modi, A. (2008). Non-formal education in a tribal setting: Strategies for qualitative changes in children. Psychology and Developing Societies, 20(1), 65–98.  |   Google Scholar
  13. Ličen, N., Lihtenvalner, K., & Podgornik, V. (2012). The non-formal education and migration of the Aeta, an indigenous tribe in the Philippines. Anthropological Notebooks, 18(3).  |   Google Scholar
  14. Minna-Eyovwunu, D., Tene-Omadide, V., Yahaya, A., & Orueyegha, S. (2020). Vocational and Technical Education, Importance, Challenges, And Way Forward: A Case Study of VTE Departments in Colleges of Education, Delta State, Nigeria. International Journal of Innovative Social & Science Education Research, 8(1), 98-110.  |   Google Scholar
  15. Mitra, A. (2007). India: Non-formal education. UNESCO Digital Library.  |   Google Scholar
  16. Muoghalu, N. C. (2018). Challenges of Technical and Vocational Education in Nigeria. International Journal of Research, 5(1), 3279–3292.  |   Google Scholar
  17. Riaz, A., Siddique, A., Riaz, F., & Malik, N. (2014). Impact assessment of skill development trainings rendered by Punjab rural support programme for empowering rural women. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 3(4), 27.  |   Google Scholar
  18. Romi, S., & Schmida, M. (2009). Non‐formal education: A major educational force in the postmodern era. Cambridge Journal of Education, 39(2), 257-273.  |   Google Scholar
  19. Rose, M. (2005). The mind at work: Valuing the intelligence of the American worker. Penguin.  |   Google Scholar
  20. Sharma, S. (2019). An impact assessment of skill development initiatives: A select study of Jammu and Kashmir state [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Central University of Jammu.  |   Google Scholar
  21. Shindler, B. A., Brunson, M., & Stankey, G. H. (2002). Social acceptability of forest conditions and management practices: A problem analysis. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-537. Portland, OR: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 68 p, 537.  |   Google Scholar
  22. USAID (2018). Views of Non-Formal Education in Morocco.  |   Google Scholar

How to Cite

Islahi, F., & Nasrin, . (2022). Social Acceptability of Non-Formal Education in India. European Journal of Education and Pedagogy, 3(3), 124–128.

Search Panel

 Fatima Islahi
 Google Scholar |   EJEDU Journal

 . Nasrin
 Google Scholar |   EJEDU Journal